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  • Contract Labour: A Review of the Contract Labour (Regulation and Abolition) Act & Other Applicable Labour Laws

Contract Labour: A Review of the Contract Labour (Regulation and Abolition) Act & Other Applicable Labour Laws

Author: Dr. S.C.  Srivastava 

ISBN: 9789382524014

Year: 2015

Pages: 306

Medium: English

Publisher: The Bookline

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  • Description
About the Book
The research work, in the form of this book, was initially undertaken by the author on the invitation of the Institute of Manpower Planning & Research, Planning Commission, Government of India wherein the author was asked to make a comprehensive review of law regulating contract labour with a view to meet the problems faced by the management and contract labour in the era of globalization and to suggest suitable reforms and amendments. In order to fulfill the task the author identified various issues relating to employment of contract labour. This was followed by exhaustive, analytical and critical examination of the Contract Labour (Regulation and Abolition) Act, 1970 and other applicable social security, wages, minimum standard and industrial relations legislation. This was done in the light of the Supreme Court and High Court decisions, recommendations of the Commissions and Committee, approaches followed in various five year plans and among others the law in foreign countries. The book provides the blue print by way of amendments along with the draft legislation (which is more akin to report), in order to meet the requirements of social partners.
The book will serve as a guide for enforcement agencies as it refers to the judicial decisions which provides how casual approach and negligence led to acquittal and the precautions which need to be taken by them in preparing the complaint and the necessary steps to be taken in presenting the case. On the basis of all the decided cases the author has compiled the test which should be applied to determine same and similar work for the purposes of equal pay. This, it is hoped, would help the Chief Labour Commissioner, Labour Commissioner and their teams who are responsible to determine same and similar work.
The book is also intended to meet the requirements of the officers of public and private sectors as it provides on the basis of judicial decisions permissible area of interference of principal employers in selection of contract labour and direction, supervision and control over the work done by them. When the contract becomes a sham contract and what is its effect on employer employee relations? What are the consequences of non-registration and engaging contract labour through contractor without license? It also provides the responsibilities of principal employer in payment of wages, social security and health and welfare as well as safety if the contractor fails to fulfil it's obligations.
The book also serves as guide to legislators, legal draftsman, trade unions researcher, lawyers, law, management, social works students, labour Institutes and training centres for managerial personnel.

About the Author
Professor S.C. Srivastava obtained his LL.D. (Doctor of Laws) from the Calcutta University, and incidentally, the first LL.D. in Labour Law in India. Starting his Career as Lecturer in Law School, Banaras Hindu University, he served Jammu University as Associate Professor (Reader) and Kurukshetra University, as Professor of Law, Chairman, Department of Law and Dean, Faculty of Law. Earlier during 1986-88, he served the University of Calabar (Nigeria) as Professor; Head of the Department of Public and International Law and Dean, Faculty of Law. He also served the Law Commission of India during 1992-97, Research Professor, Indian Law Institute, New Delhi from 1999-2004 and Director, Institute of Industrial Relations and Personal Management, New Delhi from 2004-2008. He also served as a Visiting Professor in GGSIP University Delhi, XLRI, Jamshedpur, and several other Indian and foreign Universities. He was Legal Consultant to Petroleum & Natural Gas Regulatory Board, New Delhi and NEPZ, NOIDA. He was awarded rare distinction of National Fellow/National Professor from the University Grants Commission, New Delhi.
Prof. Srivastava is presently serving as an Advocate and Legal Consultant. He is also the Secretary General, National Labour Law Association, New Delhi. He has been a Visiting Professor in the Indian Law Institute, New Delhi, Indian Institute of Technology (New Delhi) and Indian Institute of Management (Rohtak). He has also been the Member of the Sectoral Innovation Council appointed by the Prime Minister of India to review Labour Laws and Member, Advisory Board on Child Labour, V.V. Giri National Labour Institute, NOIDA.
Prof. Srivastava has published several books and more than ninety research papers in India and abroad. Prominent among them are Industrial Relations & Labour Law, Vikas Publishing House, New Delhi
(6th ed. 2012); Dispute Resolution Process in India, ILI. & Institute of Developing Economies (IDI-JETRO), Japan (March 2002) (co-Author); Judicial System and Reforms in Asian Countries : The Case in India, ILI & Institute of Developing Economies (IDE-Jetro), Japan (March, 2001)(Co-Author); Managing challenges of WTO Participation: Case Studies (contributed a chapter on Geographical Indication: Darjeeling Story) A WTO project, published by Cambridge University; Industrial Disputes and Labour Management Relation in India Deep & Deep Publication, New Delhi (1984); Industrial Relations Machinery Structure, Functioning and the Law, Deep & Deep Publication, New Delhi(1984). Social Security and Labour Law, Eastern Book Company, Lucknow (1985). Case Book on Labour Relation and the Law, Indian Law Institute, New Delhi (2007) (Revised); Labour Law in the Factories, Mines Plantations, Transport & Shops, Prentice Hall of India Ltd, New Delhi. (1992); Commentaries on the Payment of Bonus Act, 1965, M/S Universal Law Publishing Co(1998); Commentaries on the Factories Act, 1948, M/s, Universal Law Publishing Co(1999); Commentaries on Employees; Provident Fund & Miscellaneous Provision Act, 1952, Eastern Book Co., Lucknow (2000) (revised); Cases on Indian Labour Law Vol. III, Fredric Ebert Stiftung, New Delhi (2000); Law of Agency, Butterworths India (2001) (revised); Commentaries on the Payment of Gratuity Act, Universal Law Publishing Co. New Delhi (2002); Legal Frame–work for Health Care in India, Butterworths (India) Ltd. & ILI (2002); Right of Person with disabilities (Co. Ed.) ILI. (2002); Legal Method, Reasoning and Research Methodology published by Regal Publications, Delhi (2014) Co-author; Containing Workplace Conflicts: Role of Social Partners, The Book Line (2013) (Co-Editor).

    Preface    (iii)
    Table of Cases    (xi)    
    1. Introduction    1
    I.    The Contextual Framework    1
    II.    Size of Contract Labour Force    3
    III.    Historical Perspective and the Approaches of Committee/    4
        Commission on Contract Labour System in India
    IV.    Emerging Issues on Contract Labour    8
    V.    Views of the Stakeholders on Contract Labour    11
    VI.    Need to Review and Amend the Contract Labour (Regulation and Abolition) Act, 1970     13
    VII.    Objectives of the Study    15
    VIII.    Research Methodology adopted in the Study    15
    IX.    Structure of the Work    16
2.     Concept and Classification of Contract Labour    19
    I.    General    19
        A. Contract of Service    19
        B. Contract for Service    20
        C. Scope of the Present Work    21
    II.    Concept and Definition of Contractor, Principal Employer and Workman    21
        A. Contractor    21
        B. Sub-contractor    22
        C. Principal Employer    22
        D. Workman    23
    III.    Concept and Definition of Contract Labour    23
    IV.    Classification of Contract Labour    24
    V.    Sham Contract    24
        A. When a contract becomes sham contract    24
        B. When a contract would not be sham contract    25
        C. Who may decide the the issue of sham contract    25
        D. Effect of contract found to be sham or not genuine    25
    VI.    Supervision and Control     28
        A. Determination of Supervision and Control    28
        B. Test to determine employer-employee relationships    29
    VII.    On Whom the Onus lies    29
    VIII.    Case Study on Sham Contract    30
3. Status of Canteen Employees    32
    A.    General    32
    B.    Statutory Obligation    32
    C.    Judicial Response    33
4.     Constitutional and International Perspective    47
    I.    Constitutional Prohibition    47
    II.    International Labour Organisation (ILO) on Contract Labour    48
    III.    Position in Foreign Countries    48
5.     The Contract Labour (Regulation and Abolition) Act, 1970    35
    I.    Judicial Legislation on Prohibition of Contract Labour System: Prior to Enactment of CLRA Act, 1970.    54
    II.    Legislative Approval of Judicial Response    54
    III.    Legislative Framework    55
    IV.    Scope and Coverage    55
    V.    State Amendments in CLRA Act    57
    VI.    Inclusion of contract labour in the definition of worker/employee under various labour legislations    57
    VII.    Definition of Appropriate Government    59
6.     Registration of Establishments and Licensing of Contractors    64
    I.    Registration of Establishment : A Statutory Obligation    64
    II.    Licensing of Contractors    66
    III.    Exploitation of contract labour by unlicensed contractor/sub-contractor and employer    74
    IV.    Exploitation of contract labour by contractor: Observations of the National Commission on Labour on field visits    75
    V.    Working of CLRA Act regarding registration of principal employer and licensing of contractor    76
    VI.    Non-Compliance of Sections 7 and 12    76
    VII.    Recommendation    77
7. Prohibition of Employment of Contract Labour    79
    I.    The Legislative Framework    79
    II.    Judicial approaches : Status of contract labour on abolition of contract labour system    80
    III.    View points of Employers and Workers on Section 10    86
    IV.    Recommendations of the Committees and Commissions    86
    V.    State Amendment Andhra Pradesh Contract Labour (Regulation & Abolition) Amendment Act, 2003    89
    VI.    An Evaluation    90
8. Payment to Wages, Equal Pay for Equal Work and Payment of Bonus to Contract Labour    92
    I.    Responsibility for Payment of Wages Provides    92
    II.    Equal Pay for Equal Work    94
    III.    Existing Provisions for Equal Pay for Equal Work to Contract Labour    95
    IV.    Applicability of the Principle of Equal Pay for Equal Work : Judicial View    96
    V.    Payment of Bonus Act    99

9.     Working Conditions of Contract Labour    101
    I.    Hours of work, overtime, weekly holidays, leave and other conditions of service of the Contract Labour    101
    II.    Health, Safety and Welfare of Contract Labour    102
10.     Social Security for Contract Labour    104
    I.    Employees’ Compensation Act, 1923    104
    II.    The Employees’ State Insurance Act, 1948    106
    III.    The Employees’ Provident Fund and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1952    109
    IV.    Employees’ Pension Scheme (EPS), 1995    110
    V.    Employees’ Deposit Linked Insurance Scheme, 1976    110
    VI.    The Maternity Benefit Act, 1961    111
    VII.    Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972    114    
11.     Application of the Industrial Disputes Act to Contract Labour     117
    I.    General    117
    II.    Remedy to the Contract Labour under the Industrial Disputes Act     117
    IV.    Closure    121
    V.    Legislative Measures to be taken to Amend Chapter VA and VB    123
    VI.    Re-employment of Retrenched Contract Labour    125
    VII.    Need for Amendment    125
    VIII.    Court’s Power to Direct Engagement of Retrenched Employees    125
    IX.    Application of Section 22 of IDA Prohibiting Strikes in Public Utility Services to Contract Labour    126
12.     Cess for the Welfare of Contract Labour    127
    I.    Proposal to levy Cess for the Welfare of Contract Labour: Insertion of New Chapter VA    127
    II.    Insertion of Chapter VA: Consequential amendment in the name and functions in Central/State Advisory Contract Labour cum Welfare Boards    127
    III.    Need to Amend    128
13.     Enforcement of the Contract Labour (Regulation & Abolition) Act, 1970    92
    I.    Penalties and Procedure    129
    II.    Limitation for Prosecutions    131
    III.    Judicial Approach    131
    IV.    Inspection Staff    133
    VI.    Enforcement of the CLRA Act    134
    VII.    An Appraisal    136
14.     Conclusions and Recommendations    137
       ANNEXURES    169    
        Annexures-I: The Contract Labour (Regulation and Abolition) Act, 1970    171
        Annexures-II: Contract Labour (Regulation and Abolition) Central Rules, 1971    186
        Annexures-III: Andhra Pradesh Contract Labour (Regulation and Abolition) Rules, 1971    247
        Annexures-IV: Jharkhand Contract Labour (Regulation and Abolition) Rules 1972    253
        Annexures-V: Delhi Contract Labour (Regulation and Abolition) Rule 1972    260
        Annexures-VI: Contract Labour (Regulation and Abolition) Karnataka Rules 1974    272
        Annexures-VII: The Contract Labour (Regulation and Abolition) (Rajasthan Amendment) Act, 2014    298
        Annexures-VIII: West Bengal Contract Labour (Regulation and Abolition) Rules, 1972 as Amended in 2010    300
        Index    303

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